Image: Shutterstock/Venus78

By Lisa Weinberger

As false and hateful content spreads faster and at a greater scale online than ever before, several countries in Europe have introduced legislation to criminalize disinformation online. Considered a model of such disinformation laws in Europe, Germany’s Network Enforcement Act (NetzDG) was intensely debated by human rights advocates before coming into force in 2018. Soon after its enforcement, the idea travelled to France where a strikingly similar law, commonly referred to as the Avia Law, was adopted only to be struck down by the French Constitutional Council in 2020 due to constitutional concerns. Austria followed suit in…

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